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NANOSYSTEMS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, MATHEMATICS, 2021, 12 (6), P. 711–727

Phase equilibria and materials in the TiO2–SiO2–ZrO2 system: a review

S. A. Kirillova – I.V. Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry of RAS, Emb. Makarova, 2, St. Petersburg, 199034; St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, Professor Popov St., 5, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia; refractory-sveta@mail.ru
V. I. Almjashev – I.V. Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry of RAS, Emb. Makarova, 2, St. Petersburg, 199034; St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, Professor Popov St., 5, St. Petersburg, 197376; FSUE “Alexandrov Research Institute of Technology”, Koporskoye sh., 72, Sosnovy Bor LR, 188540, Russia; vac@mail.ru
V. L. Stolyarova – I.V. Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry of RAS, Emb. Makarova, 2, St. Petersburg, 199034; St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia; stolyarova.v@iscras.ru

This paper analyzes the available data on phase equilibria in the TiO2–SiO2–ZrO2 system. The advantages of specialized databases and software systems for the analysis of information on phase equilibria are pointed. Phase diagrams are kind of a roadmap for the design of materials. As shown in the review, nanomaterials are no exception to this. Data on phase equilibria, such as eutectic points, solubility limits, binodal and spinodal curves, make it possible to predict the possibility of the formation of nanoscale structures and materials based on them. In its turn during the transition to the nanoscale state, the mutual component solubility, the temperature of phase transformation may change significantly, and other features may become observable. This provides additional variability when choosing compositions and material design based on the phases of a given system. As an example, for design of nuclear fuel assemblies that are tolerant to severe accidents at nuclear power plants, mixed carbides (so-called MAX-phases) are considered as one of the most promising options as nanoscale layers on fuel cladding. It is suggested that the materials of the TiO2–SiO2–ZrO2 system, which are the product of oxidation of some MAX-phases, can serve as an inhibitor of their further corrosion. Ensuring the stability of materials based on MAX-phases expands their prospects in nuclear power. This requires comprehensive information about phase equilibria and formation conditions of nanostructured states in the analyzed system.

Keywords: phase equilibria, zirconia, silica, titania, nanomaterials, MAX-phases, nuclear safety.

PACS 64.75.-g; 28.52.Fa; 28.52.Nh

DOI 10.17586/2220-8054-2021-12-6-711-727

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