33

NANOSYSTEMS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, MATHEMATICS, 2016, 7 (1), P. 220–225

Interaction of femtosecond laser radiation with carbon materials: exfoliation of graphene structures and synthesis of low-dimensional carbon structures

D. Abramov – Vladimir State University, Vladimir, Russia; awraam@mail.ru
S. Arakelian – Vladimir State University, Vladimir, Russia; arak@vlsu.ru
D. Kochuev – Vladimir State University, Vladimir, Russia; _b_@mail.ru
S. Makov – Vladimir State University, Vladimir, Russia; stephan.makov@gmail.com
V. Prokoshev – Vladimir State University, Vladimir, Russia; prokoshev_vg@vlsu.ru
K. Khorkov – Vladimir State University, Vladimir, Russia; freeod@mail.ru

Carbon is represented in modern nanomaterials by a large variety of modifications. Various methods and technologies have been developed to create these various forms. Methods utilizing laser irradiation constitute a large portion of these techniques. The action of laser pulses upon graphite may result in the exfoliation of graphene layers. This paper presents the results of implementing method of laser-induced cleavage of graphite in liquid nitrogen using femtosecond laser radiation pulses. The process of obtaining graphene from the laser processing of graphite is accompanied by the formation of various types of low-dimensional carbon structures.

Keywords: graphene, carbon nanorods, laser synthesis, femtosecond laser.

PACS 81.05.-t, 42.62.Cf

DOI 10.17586/2220-8054-2016-7-1-220-225

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11 responses to 33


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    the city’s varying climate and infrastructure needs.
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    Chipper Plumbing and Radiant is situated in Tukwila, a city founded in 1908.
    Tukwila has developed into a thriving community with a population of 21,377 as of 2022 and 8,098
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    significant retail hub, home to Westfield Southcenter,
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    Plumbing repair costs in Tukwila can vary depending on the type
    of service required. Basic services like drain cleaning or faucet repair might range from $100 to $300, while more
    extensive work such as water heater installation or sewer repair can cost between $500 and $3,000.
    Tukwila experiences a range of temperatures, with summer highs reaching around
    76°F and winter lows dropping to approximately 37°F. These
    temperature variations make it essential for residents to have reliable plumbing systems that can handle
    both the cold and the heat, ensuring year-round comfort and functionality.

    Tukwila offers numerous points of interest that cater to various tastes and preferences.
    Angle Lake Park is a popular destination for outdoor
    activities, offering beautiful views and recreational opportunities.
    The Aviation Pavilion at the Museum of Flight showcases
    an impressive collection of historic aircraft.
    The Highline SeaTac Botanical Garden features stunning displays
    of local and exotic plants. Bowlero South Seattle provides fun and entertainment for families and friends.
    Lastly, the Great American Casino Tukwila offers gaming and dining experiences
    for those seeking a night out. Each of these attractions
    provides unique experiences that highlight Tukwila’s diverse
    cultural and recreational offerings.

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    seeking reliable and efficient solutions. The company provides a comprehensive
    range of services, including leak detection, pipe repair, and sump pump installation. Chipper Plumbing’s commitment to
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    that all plumbing needs are met promptly and professionally.
    For those living in Tukwila, Chipper Plumbing and Radiant is the trusted partner for maintaining
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    of mind and comfort throughout the year.

    In Tukwila, Washington, maintaining a reliable plumbing system is
    essential due to the region’s climate and infrastructure.
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    Chipper Plumbing and Radiant operates in Tukwila, a city founded in 1908.
    Tukwila has grown into a vibrant community with a population of 21,377 as of
    2022 and 8,098 households. The city is well-connected by major highways, including I-5, which facilitates easy
    travel across the region. An interesting fact about
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    largest shopping centers in the area. This dynamic city offers a
    mix of residential, commercial, and recreational opportunities,
    making it an ideal place to live and work.

    The cost of plumbing repairs in Tukwila can vary widely depending on the service required.
    Basic services like drain cleaning or faucet repair might range
    from $100 to $300, while more extensive work such as water heater installation or sewer
    repair can cost between $500 and $3,000. Tukwila experiences
    a range of temperatures, with summer highs reaching around 76°F and
    winter lows dropping to approximately 37°F.
    These temperature fluctuations make reliable plumbing systems
    essential for maintaining indoor comfort year-round. Regular maintenance
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    Tukwila offers numerous points of interest that cater to a variety of tastes and preferences.

    Angle Lake Park is a popular destination for outdoor activities, offering beautiful views
    and recreational opportunities. The Aviation Pavilion at the
    Museum of Flight showcases an impressive collection of historic aircraft.
    The Highline SeaTac Botanical Garden features stunning displays of local and exotic plants.
    Bowlero South Seattle provides fun and entertainment for families and friends.
    Lastly, the Great American Casino Tukwila offers gaming and dining experiences for those seeking a night out.

    Each of these attractions provides unique experiences
    that highlight Tukwila’s diverse cultural and recreational offerings.

    Choosing Chipper Plumbing and Radiant for plumbing services in Tukwila is
    a wise decision for residents seeking reliable and efficient solutions.
    The company offers a comprehensive range of services, including leak detection, pipe repair, and
    sump pump installation. Chipper Plumbing’s commitment
    to quality workmanship and exceptional customer service ensures that all plumbing needs are met
    promptly and professionally. For those living in Tukwila, Chipper Plumbing and Radiant
    is the trusted partner for maintaining a functional and
    efficient plumbing system, ensuring peace of mind and comfort throughout the year.

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    The significance of having a skilled plumber in Tukwila
    cannot be overstated, as proper plumbing maintenance and timely repairs are essential
    for ensuring a safe and comfortable living environment.

    Chipper Plumbing and Radiant is situated in Tukwila, a city founded
    in 1908. Tukwila has developed into a thriving community with a population of 21,377 as of
    2022 and 8,098 households. The city is well-served by major highways, including I-5,
    which facilitates easy travel across the region. An interesting fact about Tukwila is
    its role as a significant retail hub, home to Westfield Southcenter, one of the largest shopping centers in the Pacific Northwest.

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    service required. Basic services like outlet repair
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    and winter lows dropping to approximately 15°F. These temperature fluctuations make it essential for residents to
    have reliable electrical systems that can handle both heating and cooling needs,
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    Crescent Beach State Park offers a pristine
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    Each of these attractions provides unique experiences that highlight Scarborough’s diverse cultural and natural offerings.

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    For those living in Scarborough, LaPlante Electric is the trusted partner for maintaining a functional and safe electrical system, providing
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    In Scarborough, Maine, maintaining reliable electrical
    systems is essential due to the town’s expanding infrastructure and diverse weather conditions.
    LaPlante Electric provides crucial services such as electrical wiring, circuit breaker
    repair, and lighting installation. Serving neighborhoods like Bendale and Blue Point,
    LaPlante Electric ensures that both residential and
    commercial clients have dependable electrical systems to handle various needs.
    The significance of having a skilled electrician in Scarborough cannot be overstated,
    as proper electrical maintenance and timely repairs are vital
    for ensuring safety and functionality in homes and businesses.

    LaPlante Electric operates in Scarborough, a town founded in 1658.
    Scarborough has grown into a vibrant community with a population of 20,352 as of 2018 and 9,168 households.
    The town is well-connected by major highways, including State Route 207, which facilitates easy travel across the region.
    An interesting fact about Scarborough is its combination of historical charm and modern amenities, making it an attractive place to live and work.
    The town offers a mix of residential, commercial, and recreational opportunities,
    contributing to its unique character and appeal.

    Electrical repair costs in Scarborough can vary widely depending on the type of service required.

    Basic services like outlet repair or lighting installation might
    range from $100 to $300, while more extensive work such as electrical panel upgrades or home rewiring can cost between $500 and $3,000.
    Scarborough experiences a range of temperatures, with summer highs reaching around 80°F and winter lows dropping to approximately 15°F.

    These temperature variations necessitate reliable electrical systems that can handle both heating
    and cooling demands, ensuring year-round comfort and safety for residents.

    Scarborough offers numerous points of interest that cater to a variety of preferences.
    Blue Point Preserve is a beautiful natural area perfect for outdoor activities and bird watching.

    Bug Light Park provides stunning views of the harbor and is a popular spot for picnics and kite
    flying. Crescent Beach State Park offers a pristine shoreline for swimming and sunbathing.
    The Eastern Trail is a scenic route for biking and hiking,
    connecting various parts of Scarborough. Lastly, Scarborough Beach State Park is known for its surf and sand, attracting visitors for its
    recreational opportunities. Each of these attractions offers unique
    experiences that highlight Scarborough’s diverse cultural and natural offerings.

    Choosing LaPlante Electric for electrical services in Scarborough is a wise decision for residents and businesses seeking reliable and efficient solutions.

    The company offers a comprehensive range of services, including electrical troubleshooting, surge protection,
    and smart home installation. LaPlante Electric’s commitment to quality workmanship and exceptional customer
    service ensures that all electrical needs are met promptly
    and professionally. For those living in Scarborough, LaPlante Electric is the trusted
    partner for maintaining a functional and safe electrical system, providing peace of mind and comfort throughout the year.

    In Scarborough, Maine, reliable electrical services are crucial due to
    the town’s growing residential and commercial infrastructure.
    LaPlante Electric provides essential services such as electrical wiring, circuit
    breaker repair, and lighting installation. Serving neighborhoods like Cliffside and Eight Corners, LaPlante Electric ensures that residents and
    businesses have dependable electrical systems
    to handle everything from routine maintenance to complex installations.
    The importance of having a skilled electrician in Scarborough
    cannot be overstated, as proper electrical
    maintenance and prompt repairs are vital for ensuring safety and functionality in homes and workplaces.

    LaPlante Electric is located in Scarborough, a town founded in 1658.

    Scarborough has developed into a thriving community with a population of 20,
    352 as of 2018 and 9,168 households. The town is conveniently
    connected by major highways, including State Route 207,
    which facilitates easy travel across the region. An interesting
    fact about Scarborough is its rich history and scenic landscapes, making
    it a desirable place to live and visit. The town offers a blend of residential, commercial,
    and recreational opportunities, contributing to its charm and appeal.

    The cost of electrical repairs in Scarborough can vary depending on the service required.

    Basic services like outlet repair or lighting installation might range
    from $100 to $300, while more extensive work such as electrical panel upgrades or home
    rewiring can cost between $500 and $3,000.
    Scarborough experiences a range of temperatures, with summer
    highs reaching around 80°F and winter lows dropping to
    approximately 15°F. These temperature fluctuations make it essential for residents
    to have reliable electrical systems that can handle both heating and cooling needs,
    ensuring year-round comfort and safety.

    Scarborough offers numerous points of interest that cater to a
    variety of tastes and preferences. Blue Point Preserve is a beautiful natural area perfect for outdoor activities and
    bird watching. Bug Light Park provides stunning views of the harbor and is a popular spot for picnics and kite flying.
    Crescent Beach State Park offers a pristine shoreline for swimming and sunbathing.
    The Eastern Trail is a scenic route for biking and hiking, connecting various
    parts of Scarborough. Lastly, Scarborough Beach State Park is known for its surf and sand, attracting visitors for its recreational opportunities.
    Each of these attractions provides unique experiences that highlight Scarborough’s diverse cultural and natural offerings.

    Choosing LaPlante Electric for electrical services in Scarborough is a wise decision for residents and businesses seeking reliable and efficient solutions.
    The company offers a comprehensive range of services, including electrical troubleshooting, surge protection, and smart home installation. LaPlante Electric’s commitment to quality workmanship and exceptional customer service ensures that all electrical needs are met promptly and professionally.
    For those living in Scarborough, LaPlante Electric is the trusted partner for
    maintaining a functional and safe electrical system, providing peace of mind
    and comfort throughout the year.

    In Scarborough, Maine, maintaining reliable electrical systems is essential due to the town’s expanding infrastructure and
    diverse weather conditions. LaPlante Electric provides crucial services
    such as electrical wiring, circuit breaker repair, and lighting installation. Serving neighborhoods like Guildwood and Highland Creek,
    LaPlante Electric ensures that both residential and commercial
    clients have dependable electrical systems to handle various needs.
    The significance of having a skilled electrician in Scarborough cannot be overstated, as proper electrical
    maintenance and timely repairs are vital for ensuring safety and
    functionality in homes and businesses.

    LaPlante Electric operates in Scarborough, a town founded in 1658.
    Scarborough has grown into a vibrant community with
    a population of 20,352 as of 2018 and 9,168 households.
    The town is well-connected by major highways, including State Route 207, which facilitates easy
    travel across the region. An interesting fact
    about Scarborough is its combination of historical
    charm and modern amenities, making it an attractive place to
    live and work. The town offers a mix of residential, commercial,
    and recreational opportunities, contributing to its unique character and appeal.

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